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Recent publications

Chi, J-Y., Halaki, M., Booker, E., Boyle, R. & Ackermann, B.J. (2021). Interaction between Hand Span and Different Sizes of Keyboards on EMG Activity in Pianists: An Observational Study. Applied Ergonomics, 97, November.

Perez, Caroline Criado. (2019), Invisible Women: Data Bias in a World Designed for Men. Penguin, London. (pp 157-159.)

Coates, S. (2017). Goldilocks and the Three Pianos – Ergonomics in Pianists. The Piano Teacher, November, Hal Leonard Australia. Copy here:

Deahl, L. & Wristen, B. (2017). Adaptive Strategies for Small-Handed Pianists, Oxford University Press.

Leone, C. (2017). Personal Touch. International Piano, UK, January-February 2017.

Boyle, R., Boyle, R. & Booker, E. (2017). Narrower Keyboards for Larger Hands. Readers’ Letters, Pianist. UK, January. Copy here:

Leone, C. (2015). Ergonomic Keyboards: Size does Matter.  Piano Professional,  EPTA (UK), Summer.

Leone, C. (2015). Size is Key. Clavier Companion, Frances Clark Center for Keyboard Pedagogy, USA , September/October.
You will also find a copy of the editorial here:

Boyle, R., Boyle, R. & Booker, E. (2015). Pianist Hand Spans: Gender and Ethnic Differences and Implications for Piano Playing, Proceedings of the 12th Australasian Piano Pedagogy Conference, Beyond the Black and White, Melbourne, July 2015. (

Boyle, R. (2012). The experience of playing reduced-size piano keyboards. A survey of pianists. MTNA e-Journal, April.  

Other documents

A bibliography can be downloaded here:

For technical articles about piano design, go to the page: Manufacturers and experiencing alternatively sized keyboards

A Poster paper presented to the EPTA conference in Reykjavik in September 2016: ‘The Standard Piano Keyboard: Too Big for Too Many’ can be downloaded here and used anywhere. Must be printed in colour, A0 size.

Hand span data analysis – Statistics Summary, 2015.

McLachlan, M. (2010), Editorial, Piano Professional, EPTA (UK), Spring.

Boyle, R & Boyle, R. (2010). Hand size and the piano keyboard. An introduction to the technical and musical benefits for pianists using reduced-size keyboards. Piano Professional, EPTA (UK), Spring, 18-23.

Booker, E. (2010). Pianos: one size fits all…big adults. Tempo, Suzuki Talent Education Association of Australia (NSW) Inc., Autumn, 8-9.